WHAT IS A SPANIEL? HOW MANY SPANIEL BREEDS ARE THERE?

AMERICAN SPRINGER SPANIEL

American Water Spaniel

Blue Picardy Spaniel

Boykin Spaniel

Cavalier King Charles Toy Spaniel

Clumber Spaniel

Dutch Partridge Dog

English Cocker Spaniel

English Springer Spaniel (American type)

Field Spaniel

French Spaniel

German Spaniel

Irish Water Spaniel

King Charles Spaniel aka English Toy Spaniel

Kooikerhundje

Large Munsterlander Spaniel

Papillon (Continental Toy Spaniels - France)

Phalene (Continental toy Spaniel - Belgium) in U.S. the Papillon and the Phalene are considered 2 type of one breed and may both come from the same litter of Papillons.

Picardy Spaniel

Port-Audemer Spaniel

Russian Spaniel Bench (Show) Style This dog looks like the American style English Springer Spaniel but is the size of a Cocker Spaniel

Russian Spaniel (Field style)

Small Munsterlander Spaniel

Stabyhoun spaniel

Sussex Spaniel

Welsh Springer Spaniel

EXTINCT BREED 1830'S ALPINE SPANIEL

EXTINCT BREED AS OF 1930'S ENGLISH WATER SPANIEL

EXTINCT BREED AS OF 1902 NORFOLK SPANIEL

TOY TRAWLER SPANIEL

EXTINCT BREED AS OF 19TH CENTURY TWEED WATER SPANIEL PICTURE OF PAINTING 1864

MISNAMED, NOT A SPANIEL JAPANESE CHIN AKA JAPANESE SPANIEL

MISNAMED, NOT A SPANIEL PEKINGEE AKA CHINESE SPANIEL

MISNAMED, NOT A SPANIEL TIBETAN SPANIEL

PICTURES OF ALL THE KNOWN BREEDS OF SPANIELS FOLLOW THIS ARTICAL 

CLICK ON PICTURE TO SEE BREED NAME.


HOW MANY SPANIELS BREEDS ARE THERE?
There are 25 recognized  breeds of Spaniels listed  in the chart at the end of  this article.  In addition there are several spaniel breeds that are divided into types or styles but recognized as only 1 breed. 

HISTORY AND KNOW BREEDS OF SPANIELS The History of most breeds of dogs, except the most recently developed breeds, is steeped in mystery, folklore and speculation.  The Spaniels are no different.  One theory is a Spaniel type dog was brought to the British Isles by Celts migrating from Spain.  This maybe the most popular theory.  The Romans call this dog the “Agassian Hunting Dog”.   Another theory is the Romans brought them to the British Isles.  This seems unlikely as the Romans describe a Spaniel type dog used by the British Isle Natives for hunting.   A third theory is the French Knights during the Crusades mixed their Spaniel type dogs with eastern sight hounds.  This is a great theory for the Continental  style pointing Spaniel but a poor fit for the flushing Spaniels.

These are just a few of the many theories of the origin of the Spaniels.  As you can see there is not going to be any consensus of opinion soon.   What we know for sure starts in the British Isles.  The Romans documented that the British Isle natives had a small but excellent hunting dog that was white with colored spots, both large and small, moderate hair in length and long flappy ears.    We also know there are a number of paintings, from the British Isles, starting around the year 1,000  A.C. which include a Spaniel type dog referred to as the subject of the painting’s companion Hunting Spaniel (and other similar descriptions).  We also have a fairly good history of Breed development starting in 1800 and 1900 century.  Maybe this is the history that should matter and all those other dogs of long ago were just distant parts & pieces of the wonderful dogs we have today.

What makes a dog a Spaniel?  Spaniels are a medium sized Flushing style Hunting Dog, with moderate to long hair white, with colored patches (some breeds are a solid color).  The solid colored dog are normally Liver, Black or Tan in color.  The color is dependent upon the breed.  Whereas, we all know a spaniel head when we see it, every breed has a somewhat different head and you should refer to the Breed Standard.  In general they have a full mussel, teeth should not be under or over shot.   The ears are set around eye level and are long and hanging.  Spaniels in general are set lower to the ground than Setters, Pointers or Brittanys.  Spaniels should have an even, friendly disposition.  If you are looking for a Spaniel as a guard or protection dog, DON’T  this is not in his skill set.   

One more thing and this is generally the opinion of many of the owners of the Spaniels of British Isle  or American original.    There are some breeds of dog, on the  Europe continent, that looked like large Spaniels and carry the Spaniel name  but they point the game.  Here these dogs would be most likely classified as Setters or some type of pointer with the A.K.C and The Kennel Club in the U.K.  The Spaniels of  British Isle origin or American Origin are generally a medium sized who always flush their pray.   Exception in size being the Toy Spaniels and Irish Water Spaniel.    Example of European Spaniels:  The Brittany is no longer classified as a Spaniel in the U.S.

 

WIKIPEDIA ,  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spaniel  ,  has an excellent write up on Spaniels including  a very comprehensive list of existing Spaniel breeds, descriptions and pictures.  I have included   large portions of this  article on  this page.

 

REPRINT FROM WIKIPEDIA
Spaniels

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A spaniel is a type of gun dog. It is assumed spaniels originated from Spain as the word spaniel may be derived from Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula) or possibly from the French phrase "Chiens de l’Espagnol" (Dogs of the Spaniard). Spaniels were especially bred to flush game out of dense brush. By the late 17th century spaniels had become specialized into water and land breeds. The extinct English Water Spaniel was used to retrieve water fowl shot down with arrows. Land spaniels were setting spaniels—those that crept forward and pointed their game, allowing hunters to ensnare them with nets, and springing spaniels—those that sprang pheasants and partridges for hunting with falcons, and rabbits for hunting with greyhounds. During the 17th century, the role of the spaniel dramatically changed as Englishmen began hunting with flintlocks for wing shooting. Charles Goodall and Julia Gasow (1984)[1] write the spaniels were "transformed from untrained, wild beaters, to smooth, polished gun dogs.

 The Oxford English Dictionary defines Spaniel as "a breed of dog with a long silky coat and drooping ears".[2]

Not much has changed about spaniels in general over the years, as can be seen in this 1921 entry in Collier's New Encyclopedia:

Their distinguishing characteristics are a rather broad muzzle, remarkably long and full ears, hair plentiful and beautifully waved, particularly that of the ears, tail, and hinder parts of the thighs and legs. The prevailing color is liver and white, sometimes red and white or black and white, and sometimes deep brown, or black on the face and breast, with a tan spot over each eye. The English spaniel is a superior and very pure breed. The King Charles is a small variety of the spaniel used as a lapdog. The water spaniels, large and small, differ from the common spaniel only in the roughness of their coats, and in uniting the aquatic propensities of the Newfoundland dog with the fine hunting qualities of their own race. Spaniels possess a great share of intelligence, affection, and obedience, which qualities, combined with much beauty, make them highly prized as companions.

History

The origin of the word spaniel is described by the Oxford English Dictionary as coming from the Old French word espaigneul which meant "Spanish (dog)"; this in turn originated from the LatinHispaniolus which simply means "Spanish".[2] In Edward, 2nd Duke of York's work The Master of Game, which was mostly a 15th-century translation of an earlier work by Gaston III of Foix-Béarn entitled Livre de chasse, Spaniels are described as being as much from Spain as you could consider all Greyhounds to be from England or Scotland.[3]

Sixteenth-century English physician John Caius wrote that the spaniels of the time were mostly white, marked with spots that are commonly red. He described a new variety to have come out of France, which were speckled all over with white and black, "which mingled colours incline to a marble blewe".[4]

Celtic origin theory

In the added appendices added to the 1909 re-print of Caius' work, the editors suggested that the type of dogs may have been brought into the British Isles as early as 900 BC by a branch of the Celts moving from Spain into Cornwall and on into Wales, England and Ireland.[3] Theories on the origin of the Welsh Springer Spaniel support this theory, as it is believed that the breed specifically is a direct descendant of the "Agassian hunting dog" described in the hunting poem Cynegetica attributed to Oppian of Apamea, which belonged to the Celtic tribes of Roman-occupied Britain:[5]

There is a strong breed of hunting dog, small in size but no less worthy of great praise. These the wild tribes of Britons with their tattooed backs rear and call by the name of Agassian. Their size is like that of worthless and greedy domestic table dogs; squat, emaciated, shaggy, dull of eye, but endowed with feet armed with powerful claws and a mouth sharp with close-set venomous tearing teeth. It is by virtue of its nose, however, that the Agassian is most exalted, and for tracking it is the best there is; for it is very adept at discovering the tracks of things that walk upon the ground, and skilled too at marking the airborne scent.

—Oppian, Cynegetica, I, 468–480[6]

Roman origin theory

Another theory of the origin of the spaniel is that the ancient Romans imported the Spaniel into Britannia, by way of the trade routes to the far east. Colonel David Hancock[7] adds a belief that the sporting type of spaniel originated in China from the short-faced ancestors of dogs such as the Pekinese, Pug and Shih Tzu. The theory goes that these ancestors were introduced into Southern Europe and evolved into the small sporting spaniels of the period around 1300–1600 AD. The issue of how a short-muzzled dog could evolve into a longer-muzzled dog is addressed by pointing to the evolution of the King Charles Spaniel into the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel in less than a century.[8]

Arabic origin theory

The first French Spaniel is speculated to have originated in the middle east towards the end of the 11th century. French knights in the Holy Land were accompanied by their pointers and other hunting hounds. Breeding between these dogs and the Arabic Greyhounds was considered inevitable, and the progeny became the first French Spaniels.[9]

Hunting

A 16th century drawing of a hawking party with spaniels.

In assisting hunters, it is desirable that Spaniels work within gun range, are steady to shot, are able to mark the fall and retrieve shot game to hand with a soft mouth. A good nose is highly valued, as it is in most gun dog breeds. They are versatile hunters traditionally being used for upland game birds, but are equally adept at hunting rabbit and waterfowl. Whether hunting in open fields, woodlands, farm lands—in briars, along fencerows or marshlands, a spaniel can get the job done.[10]

On the basis of function and hunting style, the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) draws a distinction between continental and Anglo-American spaniels. FCI places continental dogs of the spaniel type in the pointing group (Group 7, sect. 1.2) because they function more like setters which "freeze" and point to game. Breeds in this group include the Blue Picardy Spaniel, the French Spaniel, the Brittany, the Pont-Audemer Spaniel, and the Small Münsterländer. FCI classifies most other dogs of the spaniel type as flushing or water dogs (Group 8, sections 2 and 3).[11]

IMAGES FEATURED BELOW  PRESENTED IN THE SAME ORDER AS THE CHART.

Type of Spaniel

    AKA

Country of Origin

Min. Height

Max. Height

Min. Weight

Max. Weight

Image

American Cocker Spaniel

Cocker Spaniel

United States

13 in (33 cm)

15 in (38 cm)

24 lb (11 kg)

29 lb (13 kg) [12]

 

American Water Spaniel

 

United States

15 in (38 cm)

18 in (46 cm)

25 lb (11 kg)

45 lb (20 kg) [13]

 

Blue Picardy Spaniel

Epagneul Bleu de Picardie

France

22 in (56 cm)

24 in (61 cm) [14]

43 lb (20 kg)

45 lb (20 kg) [15]

 

Boykin Spaniel

 

United States

15 in (38 cm)

18 in (46 cm)

25 lb (11 kg)

45 lb (20 kg) [16]

 

Cavalier King Charles Spaniel

 

England

12 in (30 cm)

13 in (33 cm)

13 lb (5.9 kg)

18 lb (8.2 kg) [17]

 

Clumber Spaniel

 

England

17 in (43 cm)

20 in (51 cm)

55 lb (25 kg)

85 lb (39 kg)} [18]

 

Drentse Patrijshond

Dutch Partridge Dog

Netherlands

21.5 in (55 cm)

25.5 in (65 cm)

55 lb (25 kg)

77 lb (35 kg) [19]

 

English Cocker Spaniel

Cocker Spaniel
(In the
United Kingdom )

England

15 in (38 cm)

17 in (43 cm)

26 lb (12 kg)

34 lb (15 kg) [20]

 

English Springer Spaniel (3 TYPES)

 

England

19 in (48 cm)

20 in (51 cm)

40 lb (18 kg)

50 lb (23 kg) [21]

 

Field Spaniel

 

England

17 in (43 cm)

18 in (46 cm)

35 lb (16 kg)

50 lb (23 kg) [22]

 

French Spaniel

 

France

21 in (53 cm)

24 in (61 cm)

50 lb (23 kg)

70 lb (32 kg) [23]

 

German Spaniel

 

Germany

16 in (41 cm)

20 in (51 cm)

44 lb (20 kg)

66 lb (30 kg) [24]

 

Irish Water Spaniel

 

Ireland

21 in (53 cm)

24 in (61 cm)

45 lb (20 kg)

65 lb (29 kg) [25]

 

King Charles Spaniel

 

England

09 in (23 cm)

10 in (25 cm)

06 lb (2.7 kg)

12 lb (5.4 kg) [26]

 

Kooikerhondje

 

Netherlands

14 in (36 cm)

16 in (41 cm)

20 lb (9.1 kg)

24 lb (11 kg) [27]

 

Large Münsterländer

 

Germany

23 in (58 cm)

25 in (64 cm)

55 lb (25 kg)

70 lb (32 kg) [28]

 

Papillon

 

France

08 in (20 cm)

11 in (28 cm) [29]

05 lb (2.3 kg)

10 lb (4.5 kg) [30]

 

Phalène

 

Belgium

08 in (20 cm)

11 in (28 cm)

05 lb (2.3 kg)

10 lb (4.5 kg) [31]

 

Picardy Spaniel

 

France

22 in (56 cm)

23.5 in (60 cm)

44 lb (20 kg)

55 lb (25 kg) [32]

 

Pont-Audemer Spaniel

 

France

20 in (51 cm)

23 in (58 cm) [33]

40 lb (18 kg)

53 lb (24 kg) [34]

 

Russian Spaniel

Russian hunting spaniel

Russia

15 in (38 cm)

17 in (43 cm)

28 lb (13 kg)

40 lb (18 kg) [35]

 

Small Münsterländer

 

Germany

19 in (48 cm)

22 in (56 cm)

30 lb (14 kg)

38 lb (17 kg) [36]

 

Stabyhoun

Frisian Pointer dog

Netherlands

19.6 in (50 cm)

21 in (53 cm)

30 lb (14 kg)

50 lb (23 kg) [37]

 

Sussex Spaniel

 

England

13 in (33 cm)

15 in (38 cm)

35 lb (16 kg)

44 lb (20 kg) [38]

 

Welsh Springer Spaniel

 

Wales

17 in (43 cm)

19 in (48 cm)

35 lb (16 kg)

55 lb (25 kg) [39]

 

Extinct[ edit ]

Type of Spaniel

Country/Region of origin

Period of extinction

Image

Alpine Spaniel

Switzerland

1830s

 

English Water Spaniel

England

1930s

 

Norfolk Spaniel

England

1902

 

Toy Trawler Spaniel

United Kingdom

1920s

 

Tweed Water Spaniel

England

19th century

 

Misnamed[ edit ]

The following breeds are not true spaniels, but are named as such due to their resemblance to the spaniels.

Type of Spaniel

Also Known As

Country/Region of Origin

Min. Height

Max. Height

Min. Weight

Max. Weight

Image

Japanese Chin

Japanese Spaniel

Japan

09 in (23 cm)

10 in (25 cm)

04 lb (1.8 kg)

11 lb (5.0 kg) [40]

 

Pekingese

Chinese Spaniel [41]

China

08 in (20 cm)

09 in (23 cm)

08 lb (3.6 kg)

14 lb (6.4 kg) [42]

 

Tibetan Spaniel

 

Tibet [43]

09 in (23 cm)

11 in (28 cm)

09 lb (4.1 kg)

15 lb (6.8 kg) [44]

BREED OF DOGS PICTURED BELOW ARE IN THE SAME ORDER AS THE CHART ABOVE

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Mycena B Dickerson | Reply 23.12.2018 17.12

This is my ALL-TIME farvoite dog ! Our family had one for 15yrs. I would take everyone of these dogs ! PS I'M SO GLAD I MADE A DONATION TO Wikipedia !😃😃

Karen | Reply 29.03.2017 03.40

You should put an American/English cocker spaniel.

Sandy Bretto | Reply 29.12.2016 16.57

Dogs appearance change with time, just because your dog did not have a turned up nose does not mean that today's version would not have a turned up nose.

Sandy Bretto | Reply 29.12.2016 16.47

It could have been one of the older style American cockers or an English Toy Spaniel. Both of which are small and com in Buff and White. Do you have a picture

Marilyn | Reply 29.12.2016 08.42

We had a small spaniel dog when I was growing up. It was blonde with white markings. It's nose was not turned up. Does anyone know what kind of spaniel he was?

Mary S. | Reply 01.12.2016 08.12

Cool guide! I found a similar one here with breed history and such: http://www.animalwised.com/types-of-spaniel-dogs-spaniel-breeds-around-the-world-1178.html

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Latest comments

14.07 | 12:51

Hello. We are a Bay Area family interested in a Welsh Springer Spaniel. Please contact me at(650) 219-8560 or laurenbb14@gmail.com. Thank you.

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03.06 | 14:34

Zoe (7 mos) came from last litter. She's smart, beautiful, very loving and playful. I couldn't have asked for a better pup! Thank you, Sandy!

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08.04 | 17:12

Hello, Looking for a Welsh springer puppy/young dog to be a part of our family. Do you have any now or coming soon. We live in Solvang Ca with a large fenced

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21.03 | 10:45

My wife and I would be interested in a female puppy and would be ready to welcome one to our home in British Columbia sometime later this year or early next yr

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